2. States Without Byways
Not all States have scenic byways programs or nationally designated byways.
Not all States or Indian tribes have byways designated under the National Scenic Byways Program (NSBP). Some States have byways programs but no nationally designated byways ( Rhode Island, for example); others have designated State byways without establishing a State program ( Massachusetts, for example). A number of States have nationally designated byways, but rely on Federal agencies to manage the route ( Virginia, for example). While several nationally designated byways cross Indian tribe lands, only one, Pyramid Lake Scenic Byway (Pyramid Lake Indian Reservation/Nevada), has been sponsored by a Tribal government. Additionally, for some long-distance, multi-State routes (Route 66 and the Lincoln Highway, for example), States that have not designated or nominated their portion create obvious gaps in resources that are viewed as singular entities or routes by the general public.
- As a voluntary program, States and Indian tribes are not required to participate in the National Scenic Byways Program, nor are they required to nominate byways for national designation under the Program. Currently, 44 States have routes designated as America's Byways® and six do not. Each of the six States without nationally designated byways, however, does have some level of scenic byway activity:
- Both New Jersey and Rhode Island have formal scenic byways programs, and each has designated several State scenic byways (five in New Jersey, seven in Rhode Island). New Jersey is preparing to submit several National Scenic Byway nominations in the next solicitation round, while Rhode Island's scenic roadway designations to date have been for local roads with a focus on preservation rather than tourism.
- Massachusetts and Nebraska do not have formal state scenic byways programs, but Massachusetts designates scenic byways by special acts of the State legislature (eight state scenic byways have been thus designated) and Nebraska has been actively inventorying historic routes and corridors.
- The Texas Heritage Trails Program, administered by the Texas Historical Commission, is a regional tourism initiative based around 10 scenic driving trails that were created in 1968 by the Texas Highway Department. It closely resembles a state scenic byways program due to its statewide approach, agency oversight, and funding for tourism marketing. In addition, the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department promotes Great Texas Wildlife Trails in four regions of the State. Finally, Texas Tourism identifies 38 scenic byway routes. Together, these three separate programs address the range of scenic, natural and historic qualities that would be supported by a comprehensive State scenic byways program.
- Hawaii is moving forward with the development of a State program.
For a program with growing visibility, the absence of America's Byways® in some States can raise additional questions regarding Federal designation—especially as most States now showcase nationally designated routes. Why aren't there any America's Byways® in this State? Do we have significant resources that should be represented in the national collection?
This paper suggests possible reasons why some States are more actively engaged in the NSBP than others, and presents options that may help to increase the numbers of States and Indian tribes actively participating in the Program.
The following observations and options have been developed to suggest possible reasons for why some States do not have State byways programs or nationally designated byways.
Some State Departments of Transportation do not see the relevance of byways to their central transportation mission.
The nation's transportation departments vary widely in their views and values regarding their central mission and obligation to their public. These differences of opinion are most pronounced when considering what may generally be viewed as enhancements programs. Context Sensitive Solutions, historic preservation, wetlands restoration, landscape architecture, and scenic byways represent programs that may not be universally viewed as relevant by all transportation agencies.
Grassroots coordination, encouragement, and support of byways are not customary State DOT functions.
Guiding local community advocates through a scenic byway evaluation, application, and planning process requires specialized technical assistance. The NSBP's grassroots approach, by default, often necessitates outside expertise to guide and direct scenic byway planning, funds acquisition, and policy. Many DOTs have not traditionally served in this role and the staff assigned to support byway activities may not have sufficient expertise to provide the technical assistance required.
Not all States with nationally designated byways necessarily have participating State DOTs.
The broad distribution of the byway collection across the nation does not necessarily mean that 44 State DOTs are actively involved in the National Scenic Byways Program. All four of Virginia's nationally designated byways ( Blue Ridge Parkway, Skyline Drive, George Washington Memorial Parkway, and Colonial Parkway) are owned by the National Park Service—they are not designated as State numbered routes or maintained by the State DOT. Wyoming's single byway, the Beartooth Highway, is located entirely within the Shoshone National Forest. Similarly, Georgia's single byway, the Russell-Brasstown Scenic Byway, is located entirely within the Chattahoochee National Forest. Of Tennessee's two nationally designated byways, one is in a national forest (Cherohala Skyway) and one is in a national park (Natchez Trace), and Oklahoma's single national byway ( Talimena Scenic Drive) is also located entirely in a national forest. For these five States, it is the USDA Forest Service and the National Park Service that serve as the "grassroots" community.
The following options may be considered for improving the quality of the collection in regards to States that do not have State byways programs or nationally designated byways.
Continue the existing policy: do not require all States and Indian tribes to participate.
Under the current program structure, States and Indian tribes are not required to participate in the NSBP. Without a statutory change in the Program, States cannot be made to participate. Consider partnerships with existing designated byways, touring, or heritage routes in States without byways programs.
Require all States and Indian tribes to participate in the National Scenic Byways Program.
This option would ensure 100% participation and would require a change to the legislation establishing the Program. (statutory issue)
Survey States without State byways programs, nationally designated byways, or byways only on Federal lands to determine the reasons for non- or limited-involvement with the NSBP.
Why do some States not have byways programs or nominate byways for national designation or rely on Federal partners for byway designations? Are the reasons consistent? Is there a general disregard for the NSBP or are there legal/policy/administrative concerns or limitations?
Determine if States are denying participation in the Program by interested byway groups, or reflecting a general disinterest in the Program in that State.
A survey could be undertaken to determine if States are denying or discouraging participation in the NSBP, or if there is little or limited interest in the Program. The Program, it should be remembered, is voluntary at the State and Indian tribe level, and at the grassroots level as well. Have States solicited likely byway communities only to find no interest at the local level?
Establish and promote a clear option/invitation for community groups in nonparticipating States and Indian tribes to advance a byway nomination.
There are likely community groups in non- or limited-participating States and Indian tribes that, if given the opportunity, would be interested in nominating a byway route for national designation. Current guidance and policy discourages such communities from pursuing NSBP status. The Program currently has examples of successful byway organizations in States that have shown minimal interest in the NSBP—these States providing little more than signatory authorization for the initial application and access to NSBP grants funding. These byways prove that engaged and interested byway communities can advance and sustain successful byway corridors. Consider allowing another State or Tribal agency/office (SHPO/THPO, tourism or environment office) to develop a MOA with the DOT to advance byway nominations from interested communities.